The role that competition among scientists will have on researcher initiative bias was discussed by Tullock (1959) who argued that competition would counteract the version of publication bias that occurs when 20 researchers each use different data sets to run the 14 same experiment but when only the one significant result gets published. Tullock argued that in this case the other 19 researchers would come forward and discuss their insignificant results. The conclusion Tullock drew from this is that publication bias is more likely to occur in a situation where there is a single data and 20 possible explanatory variables. In that case, there is no obvious refutation that could be published over the false positive. The best that can be done is to publish articles emphasizing the number of potential explanatory variables in the data set (as in Sala-I-Martin, 1997) or the fragility of the results to alternative specifications (as in Levine and Renelt, 1992).
Economistas são auto-críticos. Veja também este artigo que será publicado em 2007 sobre a produção acadêmica nacional dos economistas.
Eu me pergunto se outros cientistas sociais também fazem este tipo de estudo. Se alguém souber, por favor, deixe a indicação nos comentários.