Uncategorized

PPGOM divulga pesquisas de seus discentes

Excelente iniciativa do PPGOM, divulgando as pesquisas dos mestrandos e doutorandos. O primeiro depoimento está aqui. Sei que é auto-propaganda, mas se há um curso de mestrado e doutorado promissor no sul do país, este é o PPGOM.

Pense nisso ao fazer suas escolhas na prova da Anpec.

liberalismo · libertarianismo · redistributivismo · Uncategorized

Coexistências possíveis?

The role of ignorance in the emergence of redistribution – Anke Gerbera, Andreas Nicklisch,Stefan Voigt

Abstract

Our study investigates the emergence of redistribution societies when individuals vote on distribution rules with their feet. The choice of a distribution rule is a strategic decision since individuals differ in the productivity of their investments and hence total income depends on the types of individuals who have chosen the same distribution rule. In our laboratory experiment, we find that, compared to full information, the amount of redistribution increases if individuals face uncertainty about their productivity at the time they choose a distribution rule. Moreover, we find a coexistence of libertarian and redistributive societies as well as imperfect segregation for all degrees of uncertainty, so that heterogeneous redistribution societies turn out to be sustainable throughout.

Parece que sim.

escolha pública · escolhas públicas · public choice · Uncategorized

Por que governos privatizam seus presídios?

Eis o anúncio seguido do link para o artigo.

The fifth annual Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Prize has been awarded to Anna Gunderson, Ph.D. student in political science at Emory University (www.annagunderson.com), for her paper “Why do States Privatize Their Prisons? The Unintended Consequences of Inmate Litigation”.

The Ostrom Prize is awarded each year to the single best combined paper and presentation by a graduate student at the annual meetings of the Public Choice Society. The Prize carries a commemorative plaque and $1,000 honorarium sponsored by The Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University. 2019 is the fifth year for the Ostrom Prize.

Gunderson’s paper was selected as one of three finalists among a field of approximately 20 entries, and then presented on a special session at the 56thAnnual Meetings of the Public Choice Society, March 14-16 in Louisville, Kentucky. Her entry was selected as the winner by a panel of six judges.

“This year’s field of entries was excellent,” President Roger Congleton said, “and the selection committee had a difficult decision to make.”

Ah sim, o artigo.

Why Do States Privatize their Prisons? The Unintended Consequences of Inmate  Litigation
Abstract
The United States has witnessed privatization of a variety of government functions over the last three decades. Media and politicians often attribute the decision to privatize to ideological commitments to small government and fiscal pressure. These claims are particularly notable in the context of prison privatization, where states and the federal government have employed private companies to operate and manage private correctional facilities. I argue state prison privatization is not a function of simple ideological or economic considerations. Rather, prison privatization has been an unintended consequence of the administrative and legal costs associated with litigation brought by prisoners. I assemble an original database of prison privatization in the US and demonstrate that the privatization of prisons is best predicted by the legal pressure on state corrections systems, rather than the ideological orientation of a state government.

ideologia · ideologias · terror · terrorismo · Uncategorized

Ideologia explica o apoio mútuo de grupos?

Substantively, our central finding is that ideology is an important determinant of alliance composition in the Syrian civil war. Groups that were ideologically similar cooperated more frequently than those who were ideologically dissimilar: according to our models, a one unit increase in ideological distance corresponds to about a 14 percent decrease in the likelihood of rebel tactical cooperation. Syrian groups in the middle of the ideological spectrum were willing to cooperate with groups at the end of the spectrum, but groups at the end of the ideological spectrum were less willing to cooperate with each other.

O estudo original está aqui.

economia política constitucional · Law & Economics · Uncategorized

Economia Política da Reforma do Judiciário e a “Cultura”

193px-Juiz-sergio-moro-reforma-cC3B3digo-penal-Foto_-Lula-Marques-_AgC3AAncia-PT-3Então você achava que havia algo errado em nosso Judiciário e que isso seria uma jabuticaba brasileira, não é? Bem, eu tenho uma, digamos, boa notícia para você: não é uma jabuticaba. Eis o resumo do artigo que me anima a dizer isso.

Judicial independence in the EU: a puzzle
Jerg Gutmann, Stefan Voigt

Abstract Based on data from the EU Justice Scoreboard, we identify a puzzle: National levels of judicial independence (as perceived by the citizens of EU member states) are negatively associated with the presence of formal legislation usually considered as conducive to judicial independence. We try to resolve this puzzle based on political economy explanations and specificities of legal systems, but to no avail. We then ask whether cultural traits can help to put together the puzzle. And indeed, countries with high levels of generalized trust (and to a lesser extent individualistic countries) exhibit increased levels of de facto judicial independence and, at the same time, reduced levels of de jure judicial independence. The combination of these two effects can explain why judicial reforms that should be conducive to an independent judiciary may seem to have adverse consequences. We conclude that cultural traits are of fundamental importance for the quality of formal institutions, even in societies as highly developed as the EU member states.

Aliás, eis um trecho que ajuda a entender o conflito entre Executivo e Judiciário:

This aspect is essential for the independence of judges, because if the government can legally threaten to transfer a judge (possibly to a court in a remote area of the country, to a less reputable position at a court or even to serve in a government department), this is expected to incentivize judges not to act against the government (see Ramseyer and Rasmusen 2003: 130).

A importância da confiança (trust) e de uma sociedade individualista (sim, individualism) – ambas características inegavelmente associadas ao liberalismo (no sentido clássico, se é que preciso dizer isso aqui) – para um Judiciário mais independente que emerge do trabalho dos autores é um sinal de alerta. Caso seus resultados sejam indicativos de um fenômeno que não se restrinja à Comunidade Européia, então o juiz Sérgio Moro poderá ter muito mais trabalho do que imagina embora, sim, digam por aí que a nossa sociedade é muito “conservadora”, o que não quer dizer que a confiança e o individualismo estejam em alta por aqui.

Afinal, diariamente, a mídia tenta vender a imagem de que “individualismo é ruim”, com exemplos anedóticos e superficiais, deixando de lado uma visão mais profunda e complexa (embora sempre anuncie estar ouvindo “especialistas”…) do conceito. Algo parecido acontece com o conceito de “confiança”, creio.