Um trecho, via Kindle, do ótimo: “Junkyard Planet: Travels in the Billion-Dollar Trash Trade” – Adam Minter.
“(…) the critical fact for American scrap companies competing against Chinese companies is that the price of shipping to China is typically cheaper than shipping between geographically distant U.S. cities. For example, in late 2012 a container shipped via railway from Los Angeles to Chicago could cost as much as $2,400—or four times more than it would cost to send the same container to Shenzhen. In other words: U.S. demand for Chinese goods means that a paper mill in southern China can outcompete a Chicago-area paper mill for a shipping container of old newspapers in Los Angeles. That’s the power of the backhaul—and American demand for Chinese-manufactured goods.”
O exercício dos autores aponta para, infelizmente, uma resposta positiva. Eis o resumo:
Abstract. In all modern bureaucracies, politicians retain some discretion in public employment decisions, which may lead to frictions in the selection process if political connections substitute for individual competence. Relying on detailed matched employer-employee data on the universe of public employees in Brazil over 1997–2014, and on a regression discontinuity design in close electoral races, we establish three main findings. First, political connections are a key and quantitatively large determinant of employment in public organizations, for both bureaucrats and frontline providers. Second, patronage is an important mechanism behind this result. Third, political considerations lead to the selection of less competent individuals.
Pois é. Note que o resultado engloba todos os nossos partidos da amostra.