The income effect and the substitution effect come from a set of preferences. If individual families have more income in a period when there are various constraints on women’s work, they’re going to purchase the leisure and consumption time of the women in the family, and the income effect will be higher. But if well-paying jobs with lower hours and better working conditions open up, then the income effect will decrease and the substitution effect will increase and both will serve to move women into the labor force.
Preciso dizer mais? Mulheres inteligentes não criam espantalhos (como dizer que a decomposição de Oaxaca-Blinder é “machista”). Elas fazem como Claudia Goldin.