Desenvolvimento econômico · desigualdade de renda

Artigos interessantes

Measuring Ancient InequalityBRANKO MILANOVIC
World Bank – Development Research Group (DECRG); Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
PETER H. LINDERT
University of California, Davis – Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
JEFFREY G. WILLIAMSON
Harvard University – Department of Economics; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) November 1, 2007

World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 4412
Abstract:
Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to England in 1688, to Nueva España around 1790, to China in 1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new concepts in making those assessments – what the authors call the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of actual inequality, the authors compare the latter with the maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have been extracted by the elite. The results, especially when compared with modern poor countries, give new insights in to the connection between inequality and economic development in the very long run.
Keywords: Inequality, Rural Poverty Reduction, Poverty Impact Evaluation, Services & Transfers to Poor

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